Anthracite is a type of metamorphic rock that belongs to the coal family, ranking as the highest-grade coal due to its high carbon content and low levels of impurities. This dense, hard, and brittle rock exhibits a shiny black color, often with a semi-metallic luster, and a sub-conchoidal fracture. Renowned for its high energy content and efficiency, anthracite is widely used as a clean-burning fuel source for both domestic and industrial applications.

Mineral Makeup

The mineral makeup of anthracite primarily consists of carbon (greater than 92%), with minor amounts of other elements such as hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. The high carbon content gives anthracite its distinct properties, including its high energy density, low smoke emissions, and resistance to contamination.


Anthracite forms through the metamorphism of bituminous coal, a lower-grade coal, under the influence of heat and pressure. This metamorphism occurs over millions of years as a result of geological processes such as burial, tectonic compression, and the intrusion of igneous rocks, which cause the coal to undergo physical and chemical changes, ultimately resulting in the formation of anthracite.


Anthracite is found in various regions across the globe but is relatively rare compared to other types of coal. Some of the most significant anthracite deposits can be found in the Appalachian Mountains of the northeastern United States, particularly in Pennsylvania. Other notable occurrences include the Donetsk Basin in Ukraine, the South Wales Coalfield in the United Kingdom, and the Qinshui Basin in China.


Anthracite is believed to possess several metaphysical properties, including grounding, purification, and protection. It is thought to help individuals connect with their inner strength and maintain focus during challenging times. Anthracite is also said to promote spiritual cleansing, aiding in the release of negative energies and emotional baggage, as well as offering protection against negativity and harmful influences.

ClassMetamorphic (Non-foliated)
Mineral MakeupPrimarily carbon, with minor amounts of hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen 
LusterSemi-metallic to sub-vitreous
Hardness (Mohs)2.2-2.8
StreakBlack or dark brown
ColorShiny black 
CleavageNone, exhibits sub-conchoidal fracture
Specific Gravity1.3 to 1.8, depending on impurities and moisture content