Copper is a native metal mineral belonging to the copper group, characterized by its distinctive reddish-orange hue and metallic luster. The metal is ductile, malleable, and an excellent conductor of electricity and heat, making it a vital material for various applications. In nature, copper can occur in its elemental form, as well as in combination with other elements in minerals such as chalcopyrite, malachite, and azurite.


Copper is an essential metal with a broad range of applications, from electrical wiring and plumbing to electronics and renewable energy systems. Its high electrical conductivity, malleability, and resistance to corrosion make it an ideal material for various industries. Additionally, copper is often used in alloy form, combined with other metals such as zinc and tin to produce brass and bronze, which offer enhanced mechanical properties for various applications.


While copper itself is not considered a gemstone, it is a key component of many attractive minerals, such as malachite, azurite, and chrysocolla. These copper-bearing minerals exhibit vibrant colors and unique patterns, making them popular choices for jewelry and decorative items.


Copper forms in nature through various geological processes, including hydrothermal, volcanic, and sedimentary. It can be found in its native state as elemental copper, as well as in the form of copper-bearing minerals. Copper deposits typically form from superheated fluids rich in metal ions that rise through Earth’s crust, precipitating copper and other elements as they cool and react with the surrounding rocks.


Copper is found in various types of deposits worldwide, including porphyry copper deposits, volcanic massive sulfide deposits, and sediment-hosted deposits. Some of the largest copper deposits are located in countries such as Chile, Peru, the United States, and Zambia. These regions are known for their abundant mineral resources and favorable geological environments for the formation of copper deposits.


In metaphysical and spiritual practices, copper is believed to possess healing and energizing properties. The metal is said to help balance the body’s energies, promote vitality, and alleviate feelings of lethargy and fatigue. Copper is also thought to stimulate the flow of energy within the body and is sometimes used in crystal healing to enhance the properties of other stones. Additionally, the metal is believed to encourage self-confidence, creativity, and optimism.

ClassNative Elements (Copper Group)
Hardness (Mohs)2.5 – 3
ColorCopper-red, sometimes tarnishing to green or black
Specific Gravity8.92 – 8.95