Dioptase is a copper cyclosilicate mineral belonging to the trigonal crystal system. It is characterized by its stunning, intense emerald-green color and vitreous luster. Dioptase crystals are typically small and well-formed, often occurring as rhombohedral or prismatic structures. The mineral is quite fragile and sensitive to heat, which can cause it to lose its vibrant color and even crumble.


Due to its captivating color and rarity, dioptase is primarily valued as a collector’s mineral and is occasionally used in the creation of unique, delicate jewelry pieces. It is also used as a mineral specimen for scientific study and as a striking decorative element in various art forms. Dioptase is not utilized for industrial purposes due to its fragility and sensitivity to heat.


While dioptase is not commonly used as a mainstream gemstone due to its fragility, it is admired by collectors and crystal enthusiasts for its rich emerald-green hue and extraordinary aesthetic appeal. Dioptase’s eye-catching color and brilliant luster make it an attractive choice for those seeking rare and distinctive jewelry. However, the gemstone’s delicate nature requires special care and handling to preserve its beauty.


Dioptase is formed through the oxidation of copper deposits in arid environments, often occurring in association with malachite, azurite, and other copper minerals. The formation of dioptase crystals typically takes place in the cracks and cavities of rocks, where copper-rich fluids interact with silica-bearing rocks under specific temperature and pressure conditions.


Dioptase is found in a limited number of locations worldwide, with notable deposits in Namibia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kazakhstan, and the United States. The unique geological conditions in these regions provide the necessary elements and environment for the formation of dioptase crystals, resulting in a range of crystal sizes and appearances.


In metaphysical and spiritual practices, dioptase is believed to possess healing properties that help to soothe emotional wounds and promote personal growth. The mineral is associated with the heart chakra and is thought to encourage love, compassion, and forgiveness. Dioptase is also believed to aid in the release of negative emotions, such as anger, resentment, and jealousy, fostering emotional balance and well-being.

Hardness (Mohs)5
ColorEmerald green
CleavagePerfect in one direction 
Specific Gravity3.28 – 3.35