Graphite, a member of the native element class and carbon group, is a naturally occurring mineral composed of crystalline carbon. Known for its dark gray to black color, metallic luster, and greasy feel, graphite is characterized by its hexagonal crystal system, forming flat, parallel layers that enable its distinctive slippery texture and excellent lubrication properties.


Graphite’s unique properties make it an essential mineral in various applications. It is widely used as a lubricant due to its low friction coefficient, and it is a key component in pencils, where it serves as the “lead.” Additionally, graphite is employed in the production of batteries, particularly lithium-ion batteries, as well as in the manufacturing of steel and other metal alloys, where it functions as a carbon raiser. Graphite is also utilized in the creation of brake linings, gaskets, and seals in the automotive and aerospace industries.


Graphite is not considered a gemstone due to its softness, opacity, and lack of aesthetic appeal in jewelry applications.


Graphite forms through the metamorphism of carbon-rich organic material, such as coal or carbonaceous sedimentary rocks, under high pressure and temperature conditions. It can also form as a product of crystallization from carbon-rich magmas or meteorite impacts.


Graphite is found in metamorphic rocks, such as schist and marble, as well as in some igneous rocks like pegmatite. It can also be found in meteorite impact structures. Major deposits of graphite are located in Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Canada, India, Brazil, and Russia, where the geological environments are conducive to the formation of this unique mineral.


In metaphysical and spiritual practices, graphite is believed to possess grounding and stabilizing properties. It is said to help individuals release negative energy and emotional blockages while encouraging self-reflection and personal growth. Graphite is also thought to stimulate creativity, enhance concentration, and support the decision-making process. Additionally, it is considered a protective mineral that can shield against negativity and electromagnetic pollution.

ClassNative Element (carbon group)
LusterMetallic to submetallic
Hardness (Mohs)1-2
ColorDark gray to black
CleavagePerfect in one direction (basal)
Specific Gravity2.09 – 2.23