Greenstone is a metamorphic rock that belongs to the greenschist facies, a sub-class of low-grade metamorphic rocks. It is characterized by its greenish hue, which is attributed to the presence of minerals such as chlorite, epidote, and actinolite. Greenstone typically exhibits a fine-grained to medium-grained texture and can vary in appearance from a subtle green to a vibrant, almost emerald-like color. The rock’s greenish tint and unique texture make it a visually striking natural wonder.

Mineral Makeup

The mineral makeup of greenstone is primarily composed of green minerals such as chlorite, epidote, and actinolite. Other minerals that may be present include quartz, feldspar, and biotite. The specific mineral composition of greenstone is largely determined by the nature of the parent rock and the conditions under which it was metamorphosed.


Greenstone forms through the process of regional metamorphism, which occurs when the parent rock is subjected to high pressures and moderate temperatures deep within the Earth’s crust. The parent rock, typically a mafic igneous rock such as basalt or gabbro, is altered by these conditions, resulting in the formation of the distinctive green minerals that give greenstone its characteristic color.


Greenstone can be found in various locations worldwide, often associated with ancient mountain belts and cratons. Some notable greenstone belts include the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa, the Pilbara Craton in Western Australia, and the Superior Province in Canada. These belts are of significant geological interest, as they provide valuable insights into the early history of Earth’s crust and the processes that shaped our planet.


Greenstone is believed to possess a range of metaphysical properties, including healing, balance, and harmony. It is thought to promote a connection with nature and encourage personal growth by fostering a sense of inner peace and stability. Greenstone is also believed to aid in emotional healing and facilitate the release of negative energies, allowing for a greater sense of well-being and self-awareness. Its association with nature is said to instill a sense of responsibility for the environment and a deeper appreciation for the world around us.

ClassMetamorphic )Non-foliated)
Mineral MakeupPrimarily chlorite, epidote, and actinolite, with possible quartz, feldspar, and biotite
LusterDull to slightly vitreous
Hardness (Mohs)2-6 (depending on mineral composition) 
StreakGreenish-white or colorless
ColorLight to dark green, sometimes with a blue or gray tint
CleavagePerfect to good (depending on mineral composition)
Specific Gravity2.6 to 3.2 (depending on mineral composition)