Malachite is a striking green copper carbonate hydroxide mineral that belongs to the monoclinic crystal system. Its vibrant green color, ranging from light to dark shades, and unique banding patterns make it a visually appealing mineral. Malachite often exhibits botryoidal, fibrous, or stalagmitic crystal habits, and its luster varies from silky to dull depending on its formation. The mineral’s striking appearance has captivated people throughout history, leading to its use in various applications.


Malachite has been used for thousands of years in various applications, including pigments, decorative items, and jewelry. In ancient Egypt, it was ground into powder and used as eye makeup and a pigment for paintings. Today, malachite is primarily valued for its ornamental and lapidary uses, with its distinctive green color and banding patterns making it an attractive choice for decorative items such as sculptures, carvings, and tabletops. It is also used in the production of copper, as it is an important copper ore.


Malachite is considered a semi-precious gemstone, prized for its vibrant green color and unique banding patterns. Its beauty and relative affordability make it a popular choice for a variety of jewelry items, including rings, pendants, and earrings. However, due to its relatively low hardness and sensitivity to acids, malachite requires special care to maintain its appearance and should be kept away from harsh chemicals and abrasive materials.


Malachite forms as a secondary mineral in the oxidation zones of copper deposits, typically through the action of carbonated water on copper-containing minerals such as azurite, chalcopyrite, and bornite. This process involves the dissolution of primary copper minerals and the subsequent precipitation of malachite through the interaction of copper ions, carbonate ions, and hydroxide ions.


Malachite can be found worldwide in copper-rich areas, often in association with other copper minerals like azurite, chalcopyrite, and cuprite. Significant deposits of malachite are found in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Australia, Russia, and the United States (Arizona, New Mexico). These areas are known for their rich copper deposits and diverse mineralogy, making them important sources of malachite for collectors and commercial use.


In metaphysical and spiritual practices, malachite is believed to possess a range of properties that support emotional healing and personal growth. The mineral is said to help individuals release negative emotions, promote transformation, and encourage the development of personal willpower. Malachite is also considered a stone of protection, helping to ward off negative energies and influences. Additionally, the mineral is believed to stimulate intuition, creativity, and enhance one’s ability to manifest their desires.

LusterSilky to dull
Hardness (Mohs)3.5 – 4
StreakLight green 
ColorGreen, varying from light to dark shades 
CleavagePerfect in one direction
Specific Gravity3.6 – 4.0