Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock primarily composed of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments. These grains are typically cemented together by minerals such as silica, calcium carbonate, or iron oxide, forming a durable and often porous rock. Sandstone exhibits a wide range of colors, including shades of white, yellow, red, brown, and gray. Its texture can vary from fine to coarse, and its appearance may be uniform or exhibit distinct layers or strata. Sandstone has been widely used in construction and as a decorative stone throughout human history.

Mineral Makeup

The mineral composition of sandstone depends on the source material and cementing agents. The most common minerals found in sandstone are quartz and feldspar, which contribute to its durability and resistance to weathering. Other minerals that may be present include mica, clay minerals, and various iron oxides that can impart distinct colors and patterns to the rock.


Sandstone forms through the deposition and compaction of sand-sized particles, often in environments such as deserts, riverbanks, beaches, and shallow seas. Over time, these sediments accumulate, and the pressure from the overlying layers compacts the grains together. Cementing agents, such as silica, calcium carbonate, or iron oxide, then bind the grains, solidifying the rock and creating sandstone.


Sandstone is found worldwide and is particularly abundant in areas where ancient or current depositional environments exist. Notable examples of sandstone formations include the red sandstones of the American Southwest, the Triassic sandstones in parts of Europe, and the Sydney Basin sandstones in Australia. Sandstone is often found near or within other sedimentary rock layers, such as shale and limestone.


Sandstone is believed to possess metaphysical properties that promote creativity, clarity, and grounding. It is thought to help individuals connect with the Earth’s energies, enhancing their focus, perseverance, and ability to manifest their goals. Sandstone is also said to be a stone of protection, guarding against negative energies and promoting a sense of stability and security.

ClassSedimentary (Clastic)
Mineral MakeupPrimarily quartz and feldspar, with possible mica, clay minerals, and iron oxides
LusterDull to earthy
Hardness (Mohs)6-7
StreakWhite or colorless
ColorWhite, yellow, red, brown, or gray 
CleavageAbsent (due to the cemented nature of the grains) 
Specific Gravity2.2 to 2.8