Tin is a post-transition metal known for its soft, silvery-white appearance and low melting point. This malleable and ductile metal exhibits a tetragonal crystal structure and is resistant to corrosion from water and atmospheric oxygen. Tin is commonly found in the form of cassiterite, a tin dioxide mineral, which is the primary ore for extracting tin.


Tin has been widely used throughout history for various applications, including the production of bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, which revolutionized early human civilizations. Today, tin is utilized in the manufacturing of solder, a vital component in electronics and plumbing due to its low melting point and excellent bonding properties. Tin is also used as a corrosion-resistant coating for steel in the form of tinplate, commonly used for food cans and other packaging materials. Additionally, tin finds applications in the production of pewter, an alloy of tin and other metals, and certain chemical compounds like organotin.


Tin is not considered a gemstone, and it is not used in jewelry due to its softness and low durability.


Tin is created in nature primarily through the weathering and oxidation of rocks containing tin-bearing minerals, such as cassiterite. Over time, cassiterite accumulates in the form of alluvial deposits in riverbeds and placer deposits, from where it can be extracted.


Tin is primarily found in the form of cassiterite, which occurs in granite and other felsic igneous rocks, as well as in some metamorphic rocks like schist. Significant deposits of cassiterite can be found in countries like China, Indonesia, Brazil, Bolivia, and Malaysia. These regions are known for their geological environments suitable for the formation of tin-bearing minerals.


In metaphysical and spiritual practices, tin is associated with wisdom, knowledge, and intellectual growth. It is believed to help individuals release negative emotions and promote feelings of optimism, resilience, and determination. Tin is also considered a metal of communication, encouraging clarity of thought and self-expression. Additionally, the mineral is said to aid in the development of one’s intuition and creativity.

ClassNative Element
Hardness (Mohs)1.5
Specific Gravity7.287